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Extra info for Flood Hazard for Nuclear Powerplants Near Coasts, Rivers (IAEA NS-G-3.5)
These parameters are constantly changing during the movement of the storm. In determining wave effects the following aspects should be studied: — — — — — — the wind field generating the waves; the generation of offshore waves; the transformation of offshore waves; the near-shore wave spectrum; the increase in the near-shore water level generated by waves; the set-up, swell and local storm effects. 3. To evaluate waves, first the wind field generating the waves should be selected. If the wave is to be considered jointly with a surge, a type of storm 26 ‘Transition water’ is water of a depth less than L/2 but greater than L/25, where L is the wavelength of the surface wave under consideration.
Where a proposed site is near an estuary or river, historical records should be analysed to ensure that structures and systems important to safety could not be adversely affected by the presence of ice (including sea ice) and to provide data for assessing the flood hazard. The following scenarios should be considered for the evaluation of the design basis conditions: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Water backup caused by ice cover and ice jams; Forces on dams, intake structures, gates and control equipment due to ice; Blocking of intake screens, pumps, valves and control equipment by ice; Ice ridging on enclosed bodies of water; Jamming caused by slides of ice and snow; Waves or seiches caused by slides of ice and snow.
Partial constrictions such as bridges are considered to be a complete obstruction during the flood and accepted, where appropriate, as control points, if these assumptions are conservative. 8. When two sequential storms are postulated, the losses for the second storm should be assumed to be less because of increased ground wetness. In many cases, losses are ignored, which is the most conservative approach. 9. The unit hydrograph is the runoff hydrograph that would result from unit rainfall uniformly distributed over the basin in unit time.
Flood Hazard for Nuclear Powerplants Near Coasts, Rivers (IAEA NS-G-3.5)