Morris R. Cohen, Ernest Nagel's An Introduction to Logic and Scientific Method PDF

By Morris R. Cohen, Ernest Nagel

An advent to common sense and medical procedure is a school point primer on common sense. This e-book was once extensively utilized by students specially these learning economics as an advent to logical notion in training for highbrow discourse. Ludwig von Mises used to be recognized to claim that each one scholars of economics may still learn this e-book as a primary step of their education as economists.

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This quantity is a logical sequel of quantity I, the hunt for process: certainly, it matters the methods theoretical structures are positioned to paintings and subjected to check. but it may be learn independently via somebody conversant in a few real theories, referring again to quantity I whilst useful. detailed Symbols AS;B the set A is incorporated within the set B AvB the union of the units A and B AnB the typical a part of the units A and B aEB the person a is in (or belongs to) the set A Card (A) cardinality (numerosity) of the set A AxB Cartesian manufactured from the units A and B en(A) consequence(s) of the set A of assumptions equals via definition =dt definition Dt· a few x (or there's at the least one x such that) (3 x) e empirical datum e* translation of e right into a semiempirical, semitheoreticallanguage h speculation m(r) measured price of the measure r m(;) common (or suggest) price of a collection of measured values of ,; P-jT T presupposes P p, q arbitrary (unspecified) propositions (statements) P(x) x has the valuables P (or x is a P) {xl P(x)} set of the x such that each x is a P pVq p and/or q (inclusive disjunction) p &q p and q (conjunction) p-+q if p, then q (conditional or implication) p if and provided that q (biconditional or equivalence) p-q sum over i 2:; t theorem, testable outcome

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Extra resources for An Introduction to Logic and Scientific Method

Example text

The denotation of a term clearly depends upon its con­ notation. Whether we may apply the word “ellipse” to some geometric figure is determined by the attributes included in the connotation of the term. From the point of view of knowledge already achieved, the understanding of the connotation of a term is prior to its denotative use: we must know the connotation of “amoeba” before we can apply it. In the order of the development of our knowledge, it is doubtful whether there is such a priority.

But it is fairly easy to show that the number of inhabitants in New York City exceeds the maximum number of hairs on a human head. For the study of the physiology of hair follicles, as well as random samplings of human heads, enables us to establish that there are not more than five thousand hairs to a square centimeter. Anthro­ pological measurements lead to the conclusion that the maximum area of the human scalp is much under one thousand square centimeters. We may conclude, therefore, that no human being has more than five million scalp hairs.

Many of our beliefs are formed to meet particular problems, and we are often shocked to find these beliefs inconsistent with one another. But they can be integrated, and their bearings on one an other made clear, by exploring deductively their mutual relations. T hus it is deductive reasoning which enables us to discover the incompatibility between the following propositions: Promisebreakers are untrustworthy; Wine-drinkers are very communica­ tive; A man who keeps his promises is honest; No teetotalers are pawnbrokers; All communicative persons are trustworthy; Some pawnbrokers are dishonest.

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An Introduction to Logic and Scientific Method by Morris R. Cohen, Ernest Nagel


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