By Gary Haynes
The quantity includes summaries of evidence, theories, and unsolved difficulties concerning the unexplained extinction of dozens of genera of ordinarily huge terrestrial mammals, which happened ca. 13,000 calendar years in the past in North the US and approximately 1,000 years later in South the US. one other both mysterious wave of extinctions affected huge Caribbean islands round 5,000 years in the past. The coupling of those extinctions with the earliest visual appeal of people has resulted in the recommendation that foraging people are guilty, even though significant climatic shifts have been additionally happening within the Americas in the course of a number of the extinctions. The final released quantity with comparable (but no longer exact) issues -- Extinctions in close to Time -- seemed in 1999; due to the fact that then loads of cutting edge, fascinating new study has been performed yet has now not but been compiled and summarized. assorted chapters during this quantity supply in-depth resumés of the chronology of the extinctions in North and South the US, the potential insights into animal ecology supplied via experiences of good isotopes and anatomical/physiological features reminiscent of development increments in huge and mastodont tusks, the clues from taphonomic examine approximately large-mammal biology, the functions of courting the way to the extinctions debate, and archeological controversies bearing on human looking of enormous mammals.
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Additional info for American megafaunal extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene
Paleobiology 28(1):139–154 Buck CE, Bard E (2007) A calendar chronology for Pleistocene mammoth and horse extinction in North America based on Bayesian radiocarbon calibration. Quat Sci Rev 26(17–18):2031–2035 Burney DA, Robinson GS, Burney LP (2003) Sporormiella and the late Holocene extinctions in Madagascar. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100(19):10800–10805 CARD (Canadian Archaeological Radiocarbon Database, compiled by R. Morlan). ca/accessed 6/04. Cinq-Mars J, Morlan RE (1999) Bluefish Caves and Old Crow Basin: A new rapport.
It did not matter whether the animals were grazers or browsers, if their ranges expanded or contracted, or if their particular environments shifted from warm to cold, cold to warm, dry to wet or wet to dry conditions. In South America, a ramp-like amelioration toward warmer and wetter Holocene climate started about 20,000 BP, but megafauna survived for 8 kyr during this gradual process. In North America, proponents of climate change as the agent of mass death at least might argue that the rapid onset of the Younger Dryas, combined with opening of the ice-free corridor, subjected plants and animals to unprecedented cold winters.
Research Report Series No. ) Summary of research at the Cactus Hill archaeological site, 44SX202, Sussex County, Virginia: Report to the National Geographic Society in compliance with stipulations of grant #6345–98 McDonald HG (2002) Platygonus compressus from Franklin County, Idaho, and a review of the genus in Idaho. In: Akersten WA, Thompson ME, Meldrum DJ, Rapp RA, McDonald HG (eds) And Whereas… Papers on the vertebrate paleontology of Idaho honoring John A. White. Volume 2, Idaho Museum of Natural History Occasional Paper 37, pp 141–149 McNeil P, Hills LV, Kooyman B, Tolman SM (2005) Mammoth tracks indicate a declining late Pleistocene population in southwestern Alberta, Canada.
American megafaunal extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene by Gary Haynes