By Koki Horikoshi
The pioneering paintings of Dr. Koki Horikoshi at the discovery, learn and purposes of alkaliphilic micro organism are defined right here of their entirety. The isolation, distribution and taxonomy of alkaliphilic microorganisms in addition to their phone constitution and body structure are mentioned for a easy realizing of those entities. The molecular biology and genome sequencing of a few alkaliphilic bacterial lines also are presented.
Part II of the quantity specializes in enzymes of alkaliphiles and their purposes. those comprise alkaline proteases, starch-degrading enzymes and diverse others. a few of these enzymes are at present in large advertisement use as laundry detergent ingredients and in wastewater treatment.
Alkaliphiles are a comparatively fresh box of study that may without doubt offer avenues to a variety of additional discoveries and purposes for a brand new new release of employees in bioscience and technology.
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Additional info for Alkaliphiles: Genetic Properties and Applications of Enzymes
Pseudofirmus type strain (DSM 8715(T)). The findings support the conclusion that this alkaliphile strain is more closely related to B. pseudofirmus OF4 than to B. firmus. 4 DNA-DNA hybridization between Bacillus sp. C-125 and other related strains %DNA-DNA hybridization with Strain Bacillus sp. C-\2D (JCM9153) Bacillus sp. C-125 (JCM 9153) Bacillus halodurans (DSM 497'') Bacillus alcalophilus (DSM 485'') Bacillus firmus (DSM 12^) Bacillus halodurans (DSM497') Bacillus alcalophilus (DSM 485"^) Bacillus firmus (DSM 12"^) 47 100 86 100 46 41 38 100 <30 100 T : Type strain.
A. oryzae grew in the medium first. After 3 days incubation, A. oryzae began to autolyze and the 10 20 30 40 Time(h) Fig. 2 Change in external pH values during cultivation of Arthrobacter sp. (Reproduced from K. Horikoshi and T. 36, Springer: Japan Scientific Societies Press (1982)) 42 4 Physiology 10 Enz\ine activities(arbitran scale) A , 1, 3-P- glucanasc alkaline protease Time (davs) Fig. 3 pH and enzyme activities during mixed cultivation of A. oryzae, B. circulans and B. pseudofirmus. A-57.
In some alkaliphilic Bacillus strains, K ^ ions can be substituted for Na ^ ions. B. Sporulation Sporulation and germination are typical differentiation processes of bacteria. B. subtilis has been studied biochemically and genetically for many years. Several types of evidence suggest that a specific change in transcription level causes dramatic differentiation. In particular, sigma or sigmalike subunits are responsible for the specificity of transcription in the differentiation process. A sodium requirement was also obsened in the differentiation process, spore formation and germination.
Alkaliphiles: Genetic Properties and Applications of Enzymes by Koki Horikoshi