By Eric Rosenberg
Whereas unicast routing determines a course from one resource node to 1 vacation spot node, multicast routing determines a direction from one resource to many locations, or from many assets to many locations. We survey multicast routing tools for while the set of locations is static, and for whilst it truly is dynamic. whereas lots of the equipment we evaluate are tree established, a few non-tree equipment also are mentioned. We survey effects at the form of multicast timber, hold up restricted multicast routing, aggregation of multicast site visitors, inter-domain multicast, and multicast digital deepest networks. We specialize in simple algorithmic ideas, and mathematical types, instead of implementation point protocol information. Many traditionally vital tools, no matter if now not at present used, are reviewed to offer point of view at the evolution of multicast routing.
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Extra info for A Primer of Multicast Routing
Each node on the (s1 , g1 ) tree is said to maintain state for (s1 , g1 ). 5, nodes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, and 9 each maintain (s1 , g1 ) state. Note that node 2 maintains (s1 , g1) state even though there are no subtending receiver 20 2 Basic Concepts in Tree Based Methods hosts wanting the (s1 , g1 ) stream. The state information includes the interface leading to the RPF neighbor, and the set of downstream arcs, as speciﬁed by the OIL. For example, node 2 stores the upstream arc (2, 1) leading to the RPF neighbor (node 1), and A2 (s1 , g1 ).
There is considerable overhead with MOSPF, since group membership LSAs are ﬂooded within each area and are also injected into the backbone, since a shortest path source tree is generated for each (s, g), and since each node receiving an (s, g) packet must calculate an (s, g) tree. For these reasons, it is generally recognized that MOSPF cannot support the scale required for Internet multicast . 6 Core Based Trees Core Based Trees (CBTs) were proposed in 1993 by Ballardie, Francis, and Crowcroft , and extended in 1998 by Ballardie, Cain, and Zhang .
Therefore the switch must examine every multicast data packet to see if it contains an IGMP membership report or leave group message. This may severely degrade the performance of the switch processor, especially for high bandwidth multicast data streams. To mitigate this, the IGMP checks can be performed using specially designed hardware, rather than using software or ﬁrmware. 22, to assist Layer 2 switches in snooping. 3 Waxman’s Method A 1988 method of Waxman , which anticipated PIM join/prune methods, deﬁnes a greedy method for adding a node x to a multipoint connection: ﬁnd a node y that is already in the multipoint connection and whose distance d(x, y) to x is smallest; then connect x and y by a shortest path.
A Primer of Multicast Routing by Eric Rosenberg