By Mark Harvey
This grammar presents an outline of Limilngan, a formerly undescribed and now extinct language of northern Australia. Australian languages commonly exhibit a excessive measure of structural similarity to each other. Limilngan indicates a few of the universal Australian styles, yet in different components it diverges considerably from them. It has a customary Australian phonological stock, bit its phonotactic styles are strange. a few heterorganic clusters comparable to /kb/ are of markedly better frequency than homorganic clusters akin to /nd/. Like a few Australian languages, Limilngan has many vowel-initial morphemes. besides the fact that, traditionally those end result from lenition and never from preliminary shedding as in other places in Australia.
Like many northern languages, it has complicated platforms of either prefixation and suffixation to nominals and verbs. Prefixation presents information regarding nominal category (four classes), temper, and pronominal cross-reference (subject and objects). Suffixation presents information regarding case, annoying and point. Limilngan differs from such a lot Australian languages in enormous quantity of its morphology is unproductive, exhibiting complicated and abnormal allomorphic variation.
Limilngan is like so much Australian languages in that it can be defined as a unfastened observe order language. in spite of the fact that, notice order isn't free of charge and strictly ordered phrasal compounding buildings are major (e.g. within the formation of denominal verbs).
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Additional resources for A grammar of Limilngan: A language of the Mary River region, Northern Territory, Australia
2). An examination of the verbal paradigms (Appendix C) shows that verb root shapes are not radically different from nominal roots in shape. Verb roots do not commonly involve i ntra-morphemic clusters. Those roots i nvolving an intra-morphemic cluster, which do not appear historically to be heteromorphemic (see Table 4. 1 ), are listed in (2-47). (2-47) marlmi ambirri itjbik anbiyi mukbinya inymuldi ambildirrangi urlkgula ambirrwunga annuga atjbatjbula to bark to break (intr) to climb to die (Aug) to eat to give to jump to paddle to scratch to stand to work anbiny ambulding ambuldi aykgaykgi ilk ambijiwi anbalk iyulka ilkgula mulungbiny to be full to break (tr) to die (Min) to do always to finish to hit to look after to play to spear to stretch leg Apart from the geminate Innl in annuga 'to stand' , the clusters are of the type found with nominals.
The default analysis of a consonantal sequence is as a cluster. In this case, there is no reason to adopt any other analysis, and consequently words which have a high frequency of [Id] realisations, are analysed as involving lId! clusters in this grammar. It should be noted that, while variation is possible, all word forms showed a distinct preference for either [I] or [Id] realisations. 20 Mark Harvey The other sequence [dl] has a rather different status from the [Id] sequence. It is much rarer, being consistently found only in four nominal roots and one verbal paradigm.
1 Parts of speech The principal division among parts of speech in Limilngan is that between verb roots and other roots. Verb roots take suffixal inflection indicating tense, mood and aspect. Other roots may provisionally be divided into two classes: nominal roots and particles. 7). Particles do not so function. Nominals may be formally divided into the fol lowing subclasses. 4). 5). 6). 7). (e) Body part nouns: Body part nouns inflect prefixally to mark the person and class of their whole. 8). There are a number of nominals belonging to the semantic domain of body parts which do not fal l within the body part noun class thus formally defined.
A grammar of Limilngan: A language of the Mary River region, Northern Territory, Australia by Mark Harvey